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Complexity, Variability, and Change in Symbiotic Associations
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Code: DJ 6.1 (1) Saffo
Price: $9.50
1 - I understand that this article is for my personal use only. 2 - Reproduction or systematic distribution of all or any part of this article without permission is prohibited. Please contact us at or at (800) 432-6882 for volume pricing and permission to distribute for educational purposes. 3 - Access to the article will remain in effect for 24 hours and allows no more than one download of the article. 4- If I have an ID and password used in this purchase, I will not provide it to anyone else.
Mary Beth Saffo, PhD

Symbiosis-the intimate association between two or more species-is a surprising biological phenomenon, because the presence, in all organisms, of defense mechanisms against ´┐Żnonself´┐Ż would seem to preclude the persistence of intimate, protracted interspecies associations. Nevertheless, symbiosis is a very common way of life. This paper reviews several examples of this evolutionarily and ecologically important interaction, illustrates some of the complexities of symbiosis dynamics, and introduces some questions and methodological issues of symbiosis research. Five generalizations about symbiotic dynamics are addressed: (1) The evolutionary consequences of symbiosis often defy simple definition. (2) The dynamics of symbiotic interactions change over time. (3) Symbiotic life has a cost. The cost/benefit balance of symbiotic associations can be affected by environmental changes. (4) The most important aspects of interspecies interactions may not be the most obvious ones. (5) Symbiotic interactions reflect both the conflicts and the connections between species individuality and species partnerships.

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